The feeding level in OPH" Minsk" decreased on 23ts.k.ed., but remained at the high level, on average in five years it is equal 50.. . that is much higher than zootechnical norms (38.. .). On zootechnical norms for 1 centner of milk it has to be spent 1ts.k.ed. therefore, to provide an average yield of milk 3 529kg. (on average in 5 years) it is necessary that the feeding level has to
The most important condition of successful development of dairy cattle breeding in economy is security of cattle with sterns. For this purpose crucial importance has strengthening of food supply, that is the system of production of forages providing requirement of animal husbandry.
At the same time, functional achievements of biological science on physiology of digestion and a metabolism at ruminant, received for the last decades, long-term practice of public cattle breeding of our country caused need of entering of essential amendments into types and diets of feeding of cattle during the zimnestoylovy period.
Costs of production - the most important economic indicator of production efficiency of any production. The valid costs in essence represent costs of the live and substantiated work of production. In the general expenses of work, i.e. in the valid costs of production the part consisting of expenses of last work and expenses of live work which represents the work "on itself" is allocated. Expenses of last work and the work "on itself" are made by the valid content of the special category of expenses which received the name of product cost. At calculation of prime cost of agricultural production, except noted expenses, it joins elements of net income. Therefore in practice prime cost represents material and monetary costs of the enterprise of production of a unit of production.
In this regard it is necessary to pay special attention of experts, heads of farms and agricultural bodies, and also farmers to implementation of the following technological elements and economic factors:
Therefore it is necessary to create conditions for the maximum realization of these factors. It assumes the wide program of actions for ensuring necessary level, quality and a combination of biological, technical, organizational and technological and economic factors.
Because change of a livestock of cows directly influences gross production of milk, we will consider the reasons of this phenomenon. In economy decrease in a livestock is influenced by the compelled face of cows because of their incidence, a yalovost, security of cows is more senior than two years.
Concentration of otel on rather short interval of time breaks a normal rhythm on farms, creates the periods of special tension, an overload of workers, overflow of delivery room and calf houses. It complicates the correct organization of work, conducts to growth of incidence and a case of calfs.
Realization of dairy products restrains that local administrative bodies quite often limit its export to other regions. The situation becomes complicated also because of growth of tariffs on railway transport and high costs at automobile transportations.
The simple proliferation of a livestock without improvement of its quality and structure, use of new, more modern technological and technical systems, without use of highly effective cars and the equipment, fodder means of sufficient volume and quality leads to significant increase in need for labor and material resources today that at low labor productivity level causes eventually significant growth in a capital intensity, material capacity and product cost. The major factors and conditions of increase of labor productivity and efficiency in branch of animal husbandry are: transition to new more progressive technologies, systems of the organization of production and work. improvement of pedigree and breeding signs of animals, at substantial increase of security with their high-quality norms of sufficient volume.
On position of producers and consumers of production of animal husbandry negative impact was made by conditions of privatization of the enterprises of processing industry and trade which, using the monopoly position, appropriate considerable part of the final product.